What Is a Pap smear?

A Pap smear is a microscopic examination of cells taken from the uterine cervix. A Pap smear, also called a Pap test, is a screening procedure for cervical cancer. It tests for the presence of precancerous or cancerous cells on the cervix. The cervix is the opening of the uterus. Cancer of the cervix (cervical cancer) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide. The best way to detect cervical cancer is by having regular Papanicolaou tests, or Pap smears. (Pap is a shortened version of the name of the doctor who developed the screening test). The incidence of cancer and deaths from cervical cancer has significantly declined over the years because of prevention, screening, and early detection by the Pap smear. Most abnormal Pap smear results indicate the early stages of disease and need reasonable observation by a doctor.

During the routine procedure, cells from cervix are gently scraped away and then examined for abnormal growth. The procedure is done at the clinic. It may be mildly uncomfortable, but doesn’t usually cause any long-term pain.

Keep reading to learn more about who needs a Pap smear, what to expect during the procedure, how frequently you should have a Pap smear test, and more.

Who needs a Pap smear?

Risks factors for cancer of the cervix include conditions that increase the likelihood of being infected with HPV as well as other factors including the following:

  • Multiple sexual partners (or sexual partners who have had multiple partners)
  • Starting sexual intercourse at an early age
  • Weakened immune system
  • Previous cancer of the lower genital tract
  • Smoking

Most women should start getting regular Pap smears at age 21. Some women may be at increased risk for cancer or infection. You may need more frequent tests if:

  • you’re HIV-positive
  • you have a weakened immune system from chemotherapy or an organ transplant

If you’re over 30 and have had three normal Pap tests in a row, ask your doctor about having one every five years if the test is combined with a human papillomavirus (HPV) screening. HPV is a virus that causes warts. The primary causes of cervical cancer are HPV types 16 and 18. If you have HPV, you may have an increased risk for developing cervical cancer.

Women over the age of 65 with a history of normal Pap test results may be able to stop having Pap smears in the future.

If a woman has had her uterus removed, she should still have yearly screening if there is a history of advanced precancerous changes seen on Pap smear or other lower genital tract cancer.

You should still get regular Pap smears even if you’re in a monogamous relationship. That’s because the HPV virus can be dormant for years, and then suddenly become active.

 I’m over 21 and a virgin. Do I need a Pap smear if I’m not sexually active?

Most cervical cancers are due to infection from the HPV virus, which is sexually transmitted. However, not all cervical cancers are from viral infections. For this reason, it is recommended that all women begin their cervical cancer screening with a Pap smear every 3 years beginning at age 21.

How often do you need a Pap smear?

How often you need a Pap smear is determined by various factors, including your age and risk.


Pap smear frequency

<21 years old, not sexually active, no known risk factors none needed
<21 years old, sexually active every 3 years
21-29 every 3 years
30-65 every 3-5 years if your Pap smear and HPV test are negative
65 and older you may no longer need Pap smear tests; talk to your doctor to determine your needs


How to prepare for a Pap smear?


  • Let your doctor know if you’re menstruating because it may affect your results.
  • Avoid sexual intercourse, douching, or using spermicidal products the day before the test.
  • Relax. Take deep breaths and try to stay calm.

You can schedule a Pap smear with your annual gynaecological examination or request a separate appointment with your gynaecologist.

In most cases, it’s safe to have a Pap smear in the first 24 weeks of a pregnancy. After that, the test may be more painful. You should also wait until 12 weeks after giving birth to increase the accuracy of your results.

Since Pap smears go more smoothly if your body is relaxed, it’s important to stay calm and take deep breaths during the procedure.

What happens during a Pap smear?

Pap smears can be a bit uncomfortable, but the test is very quick.

During the procedure, you’ll lie on your back on an examination table with your legs spread and your feet resting in supports called stirrups. Your doctor will slowly insert a device called a speculum into your vagina. This device keeps the vaginal walls open and provides access to the cervix. Then your doctor will scrape a small sample of cells from your cervix. There are a few ways your doctor can take this sample. Some use a tool called a spatula, some use a spatula and a brush, and others used a device called a cytobrush, which is a combination spatula and brush. Most women feel a slight push and irritation during the brief scraping.


The sample of cells from your cervix will be preserved and sent to a lab to be tested for the presence of abnormal cells.

After the test, you might feel mild discomfort from the scraping, or a bit of cramping. You could also experience very light vaginal bleeding immediately following the test. Tell your doctor if discomfort or bleeding continues after the day of the test.

What do the results of a Pap smear mean?

There are two possible results from a Pap smear: normal or abnormal.

Normal Pap smear

If your results are normal, that means that no abnormal cells were identified. Normal results are sometimes also referred to as negative. If your results are normal, you probably won’t need a Pap smear for another three years.

Abnormal Pap smear

If the test results are abnormal, this doesn’t mean you have cancer. It simply means that there are abnormal cells on your cervix, some of which could be precancerous. There are several levels of abnormal cells:

  • atypia
  • mild
  • moderate
  • severe dysplasia
  • carcinoma in situ

Milder abnormal cells are more common than severe abnormalities.

What does it mean if my Pap smear test is abnormal?

Depending on what the test results show, your doctor may recommend increasing the frequency of your Pap smears, or getting a closer look at your cervical tissue with a procedure called colposcopy. During a colposcopy exam, your doctor will use light and magnification to see vaginal and cervical tissues more clearly. In some cases, your doctor may also take a sample of your cervical tissue in a procedure called a biopsy.

How accurate are the results?

Pap tests are very accurate, and regular Pap screenings reduce cervical cancer rates and mortality by 80 percent. It can be uncomfortable, but the brief discomfort can help protect your health.

Does a Pap smear test for HPV?

The main purpose of a Pap smear test is to identify cellular changes in the cervix, which could be caused by HPV. By detecting cervical cancer cells early with a Pap smear, treatment can start before it spreads and becomes a bigger problem. It’s also possible to test for HPV from the Pap smear specimen, too.

You can get HPV from sex with men or women. All sexually active women are at risk for contracting HPV and should get a Pap smear at least every three years.

The test doesn’t detect other sexually transmitted diseases. It can occasionally detect cell growth that indicates other cancers, but it shouldn’t be relied on for that purpose.



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